Its inhabitants are probably derived from the ancient powerful and martial people of Thrace, Bessi. During the Ottoman occupation, were found living near Adrianoupolis in the settlement of Bosna (Bosnochori), which was so named because there were Bosnian prisoners of the Turks.
In 1920 with the release of the region Bosna was named Vyssa. In August 1923, with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, Bosna was given to the Turks and its inhabitants relocated to the current location, 4 kilometers south, to the Turkish Achyrochori, which in 1932 was renamed Nea Vyssa.
Bosnochori was the birthplace of Constantine Karatheodori (1873-1950) who was the teacher of Einstein and one of the leading mathematicians worldwide. Today, in Nea Vyssa the cultural association runs a Folklore Museum at the cultural center of the city.
Arriving at Nea Vyssa you get impressed by the old brick houses of the village with the blue stone foundations, as the first town houses were built of stone coming from the village of Petrades.
The patron saint of Nea Vyssa is Saint George, to whom is dedicated the Cathedral.