In Arzos settled in 1923 refugees from Ortaköy and Adrianoupolis. The Turkish name of the village was Koulakli. Until the Balkan Wars of 1913, the area of Arzos belonged to the Ottoman Empire, then passed to the Bulgarians for a short time until 1919 and was afterwards united with Greece.
In the area around Arzos has been discovered a cist tomb of the 4th century BC with significant findings of the Hellenistic period such as bronze helmet, bronze beaked jug, small bronze bucket and bronze basin, which are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Komotini.
In the village of Arzos live about 250 permanent residents. The village’s church is dedicated to the Zoodochos Pigi (Life Giving Spring), with the respective festival organized every year on Friday after Easter.